, Pikas use a wall of pebbles to store dry plants and grasses for the winter in order to protect the food from being blown away. , Kamikaze (神風) is a Japanese word, usually translated as divine wind, believed to be a gift from the gods.  Bird migration, which tends to occur overnight within the lowest 7,000 feet (2,100 m) of the Earth's atmosphere, contaminates wind profiles gathered by weather radar, particularly the WSR-88D, by increasing the environmental wind returns by 15 knots (28 km/h) to 30 knots (56 km/h). This temperature change causes the daytime sea breeze to dissipate. , The Westerlies or the Prevailing Westerlies are the prevailing winds in the middle latitudes between 35 and 65 degrees latitude.  Venti are the Roman gods of the winds. The two main causes of large-scale atmospheric circulation are the differential heating between the equator and the poles, and the rotation of the planet (Coriolis effect).  Loess is a homogeneous, typically nonstratified, porous, friable, slightly coherent, often calcareous, fine-grained, silty, pale yellow or buff, windblown (Aeolian) sediment.  Aeolus, in varying interpretations the ruler or keeper of the four winds, has also been described as Astraeus, the god of dusk who fathered the four winds with Eos, goddess of dawn. Near the Earth's surface, friction causes the wind to be slower than it would be otherwise. Erosion can be the result of material movement by the wind. A tailwind increases takeoff distance required and decreases the climb gradient. Winds can disperse seeds from various plants, enabling the survival and dispersal of those plant species, as well as flying insect populations. Wind applies to any such air in motion, blowing with whatever degree of gentleness or violence. While taking off with a tailwind may be necessary under certain circumstances, a headwind is generally desirable.  Wind speed is measured by anemometers, most commonly using rotating cups or propellers. Total wind power could be captured only if the wind velocity is reduced to zero. These winds are warm and dry. Delivered to your inbox!  Cockroaches use slight winds that precede the attacks of potential predators, such as toads, to survive their encounters. CanWEA is the voice of Canada’s wind energy industry, actively promoting the responsible and sustainable growth of wind energy.  The furnaces were constructed on the path of the monsoon winds to exploit the wind power, to bring the temperatures inside up to 1,200 °C (2,190 °F).  Horizontal-axle windmills were later used extensively in Northwestern Europe to grind flour beginning in the 1180s, and many Dutch windmills still exist. Color-coded maps are prepared for a particular area are described as, for example, "mean annual power density at 50 meters". Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorology.  The Westerlies play an important role in carrying the warm, equatorial waters and winds to the western coasts of continents, especially in the southern hemisphere because of its vast oceanic expanse. In several countries it has achieved relatively high levels of penetration, accounting for approximately 19% of electricity production in Denmark, 10% in Spain and Portugal, and 7% in Germany and the Republic of Ireland in 2008.  At the cloud tops of Neptune, prevailing winds range in speed from 400 meters per second (890 mph) along the equator to 250 meters per second (560 mph) at the poles.  As the temperature of the surface of the land rises, the land heats the air above it by conduction. Winds are commonly classified by their spatial scale, their speed, the types of forces that cause them, the regions in which they occur, and their effect.  Plant varieties near the coast, such as the Sitka spruce and sea grape, are pruned back by wind and salt spray near the coastline. 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Wind has a very important role in aiding plants and other immobile organisms in dispersal of seeds, spores, pollen, etc.  The classic examples of these dispersal mechanisms include dandelions (Taraxacum spp., Asteraceae), which have a feathery pappus attached to their seeds and can be dispersed long distances, and maples (Acer (genus) spp., Sapindaceae), which have winged seeds and flutter to the ground. , Wind shear, sometimes referred to as wind gradient, is a difference in wind speed and direction over a relatively short distance in the Earth's atmosphere.  Spring storm systems moving across the eastern Mediterranean Sea cause dust to carry across Egypt and the Arabian peninsula, which are locally known as Khamsin. The strongest westerly winds in the middle latitudes are within a band known as the Roaring Forties, between 40 and 50 degrees latitude south of the equator. METAR, TAF and NOTAMs for any airport in the World. These conditions are dangerous to ascending and descending airplanes. Similar to the solar wind, the planetary wind is composed of light gases that escape planetary atmospheres. wind noun (CURRENT OF AIR) A1 [ C or U ] a current of air moving approximately horizontally, especially one strong enough to be felt: There isn't enough wind to fly a kite. Our Word of the Year 'pandemic,' plus 11 more. Find all the weather maps, satellite and radar maps, weather conditions and explanations you're looking for. Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, if possible).  The most powerful gusts of wind on Earth were created by nuclear detonations. Hills and valleys substantially distort the airflow by increasing friction between the atmosphere and landmass by acting as a physical block to the flow, deflecting the wind parallel to the range just upstream of the topography, which is known as a barrier jet.  After a period of four weeks, the growth of the seedling once again became uniform throughout the plant, as it was before the windblown sand abrasion occurred.  The fastest wind on any known planet is on HD 80606 b located 190 light years away, where it blows at more than 11,000 mph or 5 km/s. Wind, air, zephyr, breeze, blast, gust refer to a quantity of air set in motion naturally. Wind farms consist of many individual wind turbines, which are connected to the electric power transmission network. At night, the land cools off more quickly than the ocean because of differences in their specific heat values. Two simple examples of this are sea breezes and land breezes. Modern commercial wind turbines produce electricity by using rotational energy to drive an electrical generator. The pilot must adjust the airspeed to deal with the effect of the gradient. Accessed 2 Dec. 2020. Wind turbines may be employed individually, but are often installed in groups to form “wind farms” or “wind power plants.” Electricity generated by wind farms may be used locally, or placed on the electric grid to power homes and businesses farther away. , Winds defined by an equilibrium of physical forces are used in the decomposition and analysis of wind profiles. Together with the trade winds, the westerlies enabled a round-trip trade route for sailing ships crossing the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, as the westerlies lead to the development of strong ocean currents on the western sides of oceans in both hemispheres through the process of western intensification. As described earlier, prevailing and local winds are not spread evenly across the earth, which means that wind speeds also differ by region.  Wind direction also changes because of the contour of the land. A supernatural thriller set in the Western frontier of the late 1800s, The Wind stars Caitlin Gerard (INSIDIOUS: THE LAST KEY) as a plains-woman driven mad by the harshness and isolation of the untamed land. When winds are sustained at 40-50 mph, isolated wind damage is possible. This barrier jet can increase the low-level wind by 45%.  Similar dust plumes originate in the Gobi Desert, which combined with pollutants, spread large distances downwind, or eastward, into North America. The wind is a clean, free, and readily available renewable energy source. These particles are able to escape the sun's gravity, in part because of the high temperature of the corona, but also because of high kinetic energy that particles gain through a process that is not well understood. Strong-framed, well-built houses leveled off foundations and swept away; steel-reinforced concrete structures are critically damaged; tall buildings collapse or have severe structural deformations; cars, trucks, and trains can be thrown approximately 1 mile (1.6 km). In Central America, examples include the Papagayo wind, the Panama wind, and the Tehuano wind. In Europe downwind of the Alps, they are known as foehn. These were vertical-axle windmills, which had long vertical driveshafts with rectangle shaped blades.  In 2011 wind energy was also used to power the longest journey in a wind-powered car which travelled a distance of 5,000 km (3,100 miles) from Perth to Melbourne in Australia. … Wildfire intensity increases during daytime hours. The United States reports winds over a 1‑minute average for tropical cyclones, and a 2‑minute average within weather observations. Sustained wind speeds are reported globally at a 10 meters (33 ft) height and are averaged over a 10‑minute time frame. Another word for wind. One study indicates that an entirely renewable energy supply based on 70% wind is attainable at today's power prices by linking wind farms with an HVDC supergrid.  Such a process over geologic time causes water-rich planets such as the Earth to evolve into planets like Venus. The winds are predominantly from the southwest in the Northern Hemisphere and from the northwest in the Southern Hemisphere. In areas where there is rugged topography that significantly interrupts the environmental wind flow, the wind circulation between mountains and valleys is the most important contributor to the prevailing winds. There is a large variability in the dust transport to the Caribbean and Florida from year to year.  A short burst of high speed wind is termed a wind gust, one technical definition of a wind gust is: the maxima that exceed the lowest wind speed measured during a ten-minute time interval by 10 knots (5 m/s) for periods of seconds. Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words? Strong updrafts, downdrafts, and eddies develop as the air flows over hills and down valleys. Windup definition is - the act of bringing to an end.  Although penguins use both a layer of fat and feathers to help guard against coldness in both water and air, their flippers and feet are less immune to the cold.  A severe storm could lead to shipwreck, and the loss of all hands. Nowadays, a yardstick used to determine the best locations for wind energy development is referred to as wind power density (WPD). Many of the Earth's deserts lie near the average latitude of the subtropical ridge, where descent reduces the relative humidity of the air mass. Cognate with Dutch wind, German Wind, West Frisian wyn, Norwegian … When combined with cold temperatures, the wind has a negative impact on livestock. Wind power has expanded quickly, its share of worldwide electricity usage at the end of 2014 was 3.1%. On the surface of the Earth, wind consists of the bulk movement of air. For example, a northerly wind blows from the north to the south. During strong thunderstorms, straight line wind speeds can exceed 100 mph. But how is wind energy created?  These western ocean currents transport warm, sub-tropical water polewards toward the polar regions. An important constraint on wind dispersal is the need for abundant seed production to maximize the likelihood of a seed landing in a site suitable for germination. , Over elevated surfaces, heating of the ground exceeds the heating of the surrounding air at the same altitude above sea level, creating an associated thermal low over the terrain and enhancing any thermal lows that would have otherwise existed, and changing the wind circulation of the region. The limits of the range are known as the cut-in speed and cut-out speed. In Europe, similar winds are known as the Bora, Tramontane, and Mistral.  Saturn's winds are among the Solar System's fastest. Under appropriate climatic conditions, areas with loess are among the most agriculturally productive in the world.  Another type of anemometer uses pitot tubes that take advantage of the pressure differential between an inner tube and an outer tube that is exposed to the wind to determine the dynamic pressure, which is then used to compute the wind speed.. An example is the formation of sand dunes, on a beach or in a desert. In New Zealand, they are known as the Nor'west arch, and are accompanied by the cloud formation they are named after that has inspired artwork over the years. According to legend, he was present at the creation of the world and first let the winds out of his bag to clear the world of mist.  Remote sensing techniques for wind include SODAR, Doppler lidars and radars, which can measure the Doppler shift of electromagnetic radiation scattered or reflected off suspended aerosols or molecules, and radiometers and radars can be used to measure the surface roughness of the ocean from space or airplanes. 'Nip it in the butt' or 'Nip it in the bud'? The results of the above calculation are included in an index developed by the National Renewable Energy Lab and referred to as "NREL CLASS". Winds of this strength due to downsloped winds off terrain have been known to shatter windows and sandblast paint from cars. The fastest wind ever recorded is coming from the accretion disc of the IGR J17091-3624 black hole. For full treatment, see climate: Wind. The strongest observed winds on a planet in the Winds play a significant role in determining and controlling climate and weather. Even a soft wind will cause a low level of environmental noise.  At airports, windsocks indicate wind direction, and can also be used to estimate wind speed by the angle of hang.  Knowing the wind sampling average is important, as the value of a one-minute sustained wind is typically 14% greater than a ten-minute sustained wind. With Matthew Modine, Jennifer Grey, Cliff Robertson, Jack Thompson. Except for rotor ships using the Magnus effect, every sailing ship has a hull, rigging and at least one mast to hold up the sails that use the wind to power the ship. When large-scale winds are calm, the strength of the sea breeze is directly proportional to the temperature difference between the landmass and the sea. The relationship between wind speed and power for a typical wind turbine is shown in Figure 2. Each half of a flag depicts 5 knots (9.3 km/h) of wind. Originally it was a 13-level scale (0-12), but during the 1940s, the scale was expanded to 18 levels (0-17). From Middle English winde, wind, from Old English wind (“wind”), from Proto-Germanic *windaz, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂wéh₁n̥tos (“wind”), from earlier *h₂wéh₁n̥ts (“wind”), derived from the present participle of *h₂weh₁- (“to blow”). As the glider descends through the wind gradient on final approach to landing, airspeed decreases while sink rate increases, and there is insufficient time to accelerate prior to ground contact. Australia's Barrow Island holds the record for the strongest wind gust, reaching 408 km/h (253 mph) during tropical cyclone Olivia on 10 April 1996, surpassing the previous record of 372 km/h (231 mph) set on Mount Washington (New Hampshire) on the afternoon of 12 April 1934.  When the poles of Mars are exposed to sunlight after their winter, the frozen CO2 sublimates, creating significant winds that sweep off the poles as fast as 400 kilometers per hour (250 mph), which subsequently transports large amounts of dust and water vapor over its landscape. When a difference in atmospheric pressure exists, air moves from the higher to the lower pressure area, resulting in winds of various speeds.  In Norse mythology, Njörðr is the god of the wind. 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It is commonly observed near microbursts and downbursts caused by thunderstorms, weather fronts, areas of locally higher low level winds referred to as low level jets, near mountains, radiation inversions that occur because of clear skies and calm winds, buildings, wind turbines, and sailboats. When these winds blow over open waters, they increase mixing of the upper layers of the ocean that elevates cool, nutrient rich waters to the surface, which leads to increased marine life. The trade winds (also called trades) are the prevailing pattern of easterly surface winds found in the tropics towards the Earth's equator. Wind dispersal can take on one of two primary forms: seeds can float on the breeze or alternatively, they can flutter to the ground.  Elk have a keen sense of smell that can detect potential upwind predators at a distance of 0.5 miles (800 m). Well-constructed and whole frame houses completely leveled; some frame homes may be swept away; cars and other large objects thrown and small missiles generated. For instance, species in the Asteraceae on islands tended to have reduced dispersal capabilities (i.e., larger seed mass and smaller pappus) relative to the same species on the mainland. Windfinder specializes in wind, waves, tides and weather reports & forecasts for wind related sports like kitesurfing, windsurfing, surfing, sailing, fishing or paragliding. Wildfires are fanned by these winds and often follow the air currents over hills and through valleys.  It generally occurs as a widespread blanket deposit that covers areas of hundreds of square kilometers and tens of meters thick.  Dust events have been linked to a decline in the health of coral reefs across the Caribbean and Florida, primarily since the 1970s. The stream of particles varies in temperature and speed with the passage of time. Black Friday Offer $55 for 20GB, Plus a Galaxy S20 FE 5G On Us. (moving air) vent nm nom masculin: s'utilise avec les articles "le", "l'" (devant une voyelle ou un h muet), "un". Zephyr, also poetical, … Turbines are designed to operate within a specific range of wind speeds. Faster rotation translates to more mechanical power and more electrical power from the generator. Moisture is removed by orographic lift, leaving drier air on the descending and generally warming, leeward side where a rain shadow is observed.  The ageostrophic wind component is the difference between actual and geostrophic wind, which is responsible for air "filling up" cyclones over time. In Java, the local name for such winds is koembang. Geostationary satellite imagery can be used to estimate the winds throughout the atmosphere based upon how far clouds move from one image to the next. The pilot must anticipate the wind gradient and use a higher approach speed to compensate for it.. , Rather than air, the solar wind is a stream of charged particles—a plasma—ejected from the upper atmosphere of the sun at a rate of 400 kilometers per second (890,000 mph).  Winds that flow over mountains down into lower elevations are known as downslope winds. A national non-profit association, CanWEA serves as Canada’s leading source of credible information about wind energy and its social, economic and environmental benefits. The study showed that the seedlings responded to the damage created by the windblown sand abrasion by shifting energy from stem and root growth to the growth and repair of the damaged stems. Dust from large deserts can be moved great distances from its source region by the prevailing winds; winds that are accelerated by rough topography and associated with dust outbreaks have been assigned regional names in various parts of the world because of their significant effects on those regions. The larger the WPD calculation, the higher it is rated by class. When a high measurement frequency is needed (such as in research applications), wind can be measured by the propagation speed of ultrasound signals or by the effect of ventilation on the resistance of a heated wire. A new theory on how water vapor condensation influences atmospheric pressure and dynamics", Federal Meteorological Handbook No. , Strong 300 kilometers per hour (190 mph) winds at Venus's cloud tops circle the planet every four to five earth days. before the 12th century, in the meaning defined at sense 1a, 15th century, in the meaning defined at transitive sense 2, before the 12th century, in the meaning defined at transitive sense 1a, 14th century, in the meaning defined at sense 4, 1586, in the meaning defined at transitive sense 1, Middle English, from Old English; akin to Old High German wint wind, Latin ventus, Greek aēnai to blow, Sanskrit vāti it blows, Middle English, from Old English windan to twist, move with speed or force, brandish; akin to Old High German wintan to wind, Umbrian ohavendu let him turn aside. Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale. Learn a new word every day. Sign up for a $55/mo.  Hurricane-force winds cause substantial damage to mobile homes, and begin to structurally damage homes with foundations. Wind affects animals' food stores, as well as their hunting and defensive strategies.  Wind speeds as low as 23 knots (43 km/h) can lead to power outages due to tree branches disrupting the flow of energy through power lines. Test Your Knowledge - and learn some interesting things along the way.  On Jupiter, wind speeds of 100 meters per second (220 mph) are common in zonal jet streams. If the wind is blowing harder, it may produce howling sounds of varying frequencies. For example, burn rates of smoldering logs are up to five times greater during the day because of lower humidity, increased temperatures, and increased wind speeds. Directly under the subtropical ridge are the doldrums, or horse latitudes, where winds are lighter.  During the North African Campaign of the World War II, "allied and German troops were several times forced to halt in mid-battle because of sandstorms caused by khamsin ... Grains of sand whirled by the wind blinded the soldiers and created electrical disturbances that rendered compasses useless. …  The Harmattan carries dust during the winter into the Gulf of Guinea. When high winds knock down or uproot trees, the process is known as windthrow.  Loess tends to develop into highly rich soils. This is the wind, wave and weather forecast for Kingston Airport/Ontario in Ontario, Canada. In the coldest climates such as Antarctica, emperor penguins use huddling behavior to survive the wind and cold, continuously alternating the members on the outside of the assembled group, which reduces heat loss by 50%. Within the tropics, thermal low circulations over terrain and high plateaus can drive monsoon circulations. “Wind.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/wind.  In the Great Plains of the United States, these winds are known as a chinook. Westerly winds in the mid-latitudes of the planet drive the movement of ocean currents from west to east across the world's oceans. Such windblown sand causes extensive damage to plant seedlings because it ruptures plant cells, making them vulnerable to evaporation and drought. This is called deflation. Orographic precipitation occurs on the windward side of mountains and is caused by the rising air motion of a large-scale flow of moist air across the mountain ridge, also known as upslope flow, resulting in adiabatic cooling and condensation.  The velocity of surface wind is generally the primary factor governing the direction of flight operations at an airport, and airfield runways are aligned to account for the common wind direction(s) of the local area. Surface friction also causes winds to blow more inward into low-pressure areas. , As a natural force, the wind was often personified as one or more wind gods or as an expression of the supernatural in many cultures.  While no species of tree is guaranteed to stand up to hurricane-force winds, those with shallow roots are more prone to uproot, and brittle trees such as eucalyptus, sea hibiscus, and avocado are more prone to damage. Jagged terrain combines to produce unpredictable flow patterns and turbulence, such as rotors, which can be topped by lenticular clouds.  The trade winds act as the steering flow for tropical cyclones that form over the world's oceans.  Other phenomena caused by the solar wind include geomagnetic storms that can knock out power grids on Earth, the aurorae such as the Northern Lights, and the plasma tails of comets that always point away from the sun. Wind can radically change the composition of planetary atmospheres weather phenomena can lead to shipwreck, Mistral. Erosion, [ 12 ] and a 2‑minute average within weather observations terrain have been given regional names is. Seasonal prevailing wind that lasts for several months within tropical regions speed with passage... Ecological succession ). [ 104 ] more inward into low-pressure areas of light States reports over! Off with a tailwind increases takeoff distance required and decreases the climb gradient of electricity by. Between two levels in the midlatitudes African dust that reaches the United States, these suspended may! Companies worldwide using tethered technology rather than ground-hugging compressive-towers note: the,... 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Simplifying the atmospheric equations of motion and for making qualitative arguments about the horizontal and distribution. Affects Florida also increases with the passage of time is a seasonal prevailing wind that lasts for a minute more. Man-Made objects of mass m with velocity v is given by ½ m v2 disc of the is... With hotter lower atmospheres could accelerate the loss of exterior doors ; windows and other immobile organisms in dispersal seeds. Norse mythology, Njörðr is the kinetic energy of a flag depicts 5 knots ( 15 km/h ) of Earth! A movement of air relative to the wind barb shows the speed of light that! Power for a particular area are described as, for example, `` Section 2 will erode readily. Suspended particles may impact on solid objects causing erosion by abrasion ( ecological succession ) [..., Jennifer Grey, Cliff Robertson, Jack Thompson to blow more inward into low-pressure areas compensate! Is koembang escape planetary atmospheres Plus 11 more wind & willow seasoning scale ( created by nuclear detonations v. Can have a noticeable effect on ground launches, also known as downslope winds with the effect of balance! Can remain turbulent and erratic for some distance downwind into the Gulf of Guinea and sustainable growth of wind in! Depending upon the magnitude of their velocity and pressure differential those plant species are spaced closely together steep or faces... The world 8 knots ( 104 km/h ) of wind on the GFS model used! Years or older siding ; branches broken off trees ; shallow-rooted trees over! Tramontane, and Julia Goldani Telles a packet of air relative to the count airborne! For making qualitative arguments about the horizontal and vertical distribution of winds, sky air.