white phosphorus israel

A few anecdotal incidents cannot establish whether these casualties were unfortunate rare incidents or representative of a pattern of indiscriminate use. Third, the smoke projectiles were employed using delay fuses which release the felt components of the projectile at a distance of at least 100 metres above the ground. The non-lethal nature of smoke screens when compared to the effect of explosive munitions was particularly important, given that Hamas and other terrorist organisations sought to blend in with the civilian population, making it difficult or impossible to use explosive munitions without inflicting substantial civilian casualties. The Israeli report exposes examples of duplicity on the part of Hamas. The Amnesty International report either denies that fighters were present or argues that the presence of fighters among the civilians obligates Israel to refrain from using indiscriminate weapons. VideoThe new ‘Nigerian princes’ of hacking? The non-lethal nature of smoke screens when compared to the effect of explosive munitions was particularly important, given that Hamas and other terrorist organisations sought to blend in with the civilian population, making it difficult or impossible to use explosive munitions without inflicting substantial civilian casualties. The Amnesty International report expresses full confidence in its accusations even though the evidence is controversial and the credibility of witness testimonies questionable under existing circumstances. The heavy reliance by Amnesty International (and Human Rights Watch as well) on anecdotal incidents does not answer that question. The Israeli report, by comparison, takes a more cautious approach, indicating that a number of incidents are still under investigation. On January 22, 2009 the New York Times reported. The molecule is described as consisting of six single P–P bonds. The Israeli report addresses this question: …In the case of smoke munitions containing white phosphorous, the expected military benefit was that they would protect Israeli forces from attack: a compelling military objective. The heavy reliance by Amnesty International (and Human Rights Watch as well) on anecdotal incidents does not answer that question. The heavy reliance by Amnesty International (and Human Rights Watch as well) on anecdotal incidents does not answer that question. Part of a UN compound burned down after it was hit by chunks of the burning chemical which ignites on contact with air. The Israeli report on July 29 examines many of the incidents described by the Amnesty International report and offers contradictory information. Read about our approach to external linking. This method (as opposed to the use of contact fuses), is consistent with the use of the projectiles for smoke-screening purposes only. The Israeli report also contradicts Amnesty International’s assertion that “Israeli forces continued to employ the same tactics for the entire duration of the 22 day offensive.” Israel stated that it changed the protocol for using the weapon after a Jan. 15 incident: … after reports of an incident on 15 January 2009 during combat in Tel al-Hawa in which white phosphorous smoke projectiles set fire to a UNRWA warehouse, an IDF directive was issued, effective through the end of the Gaza Operation, establishing a safety buffer of several hundred metres from sensitive sites when using smoke projectiles. Phosphorus bombs can be used to create smoke screens, but their use as weapons of war in civilian areas is banned by the Geneva Conventions. The cases investigated by Amnesty International of deaths and injuries to civilians caused by white phosphorus indicate that Israeli forces violated the prohibition on indiscriminate attack. The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. Browse more videos. In other words, while Amnesty International claims air-bursting impregnated filaments showed flagrant disregard for the safety of civilians, Israel claims just the opposite is the case. Amnesty International followed up this accusation in its July report titled, Israel/Gaza: Operation “Cast Lead”: 22 days of death and destruction. The Israeli report, by comparison, takes a more cautious approach, indicating that a number of incidents are still under investigation. A second component of the charges against Israel involves the broader question of proportionality. Israel has admitted for the first time to “using munitions containing white phosphorus” during its offensive on the Gaza Strip in December 2008 and January 2009. … For example, an ambulance medic reported killed by an Israeli strike was later interviewed  apparently alive and well. The Israeli report, by comparison, takes a more cautious approach, indicating that a number of incidents are still under investigation. The Amnesty International report either denies that fighters were present or argues that the presence of fighters among the civilians obligates Israel to refrain from using indiscriminate weapons. necessarily constitute a violation. Against this objective, one must weigh the anticipated risk of harm to civilians and property from the use of smoke munitions, which are designed to be a non-lethal type of munition. The Israeli report exposes examples of duplicity on the part of Hamas. IRC denies this. Operation Cast Lead, the Israeli incursion into Gaza from Dec. 27, 2008 to Jan. 18, 2009, prompted Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch, two prominent human rights groups, to accuse Israel of committing war crimes. The new ‘Nigerian princes’ of hacking? The Israeli military has denied using white phosphorus shells in the Gaza offensive, although an investigation by The Times has revealed that dozens of Palestinians in Gaza have sustained serious injuries from the substance, which burns at extremely high temperatures. Used in this way in open areas, it is not considered an incendiary or anti-personnel weapon and is not subject to the restrictions that apply to incendiary weapons. In other words, while Amnesty International claims air-bursting impregnated filaments showed flagrant disregard for the safety of civilians, Israel claims just the opposite is the case. A second component of the charges against Israel involves the broader question of proportionality. 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Amnesty International acknowledges that “using white phosphorus as an obscurant is not forbidden under international law…” Both sides agree on the type of shells Israel used and that they were airbursted high in the air. This difference in tone and process between Israeli investigations and the reports issued by Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch has been evident after every round of conflict between Israel and its enemies. British soldiers also made extensive use of phosphorus grenades during the Falklands conflictto destroy Argentine positions as the peaty soil they were constructed from tended to lessen the … Steve Stotsky is a senior research analyst at CAMERA. The second and main type of munitions containing white phosphorous employed by the IDF during the Gaza Operation was smoke screening projectiles.These shells contained relatively small amounts of white phosphorous and were used exclusively to create smoke screens for military requirements, such as camouflaging armoured forces from anti-tank squads deployed by Hamas in Gaza’s urban areas. It says shells will be replaced with types based completely on gas, which will create the same effect. 'No corners cut' in vaccine approval, regulator says, 'One boy stood out to me - he's now my son', 'I wake up wondering if I still have a job', Why it feels like a government without a majority, 'We've lost a day of trade' over lockdown end date. Third, the smoke projectiles were employed using delay fuses which release the felt components of the projectile at a distance of at least 100 metres above the ground. HRW issues new report about white phosphorus Israel used in 2009 - without mentioning it stopped using it in 2013 Human Rights Watch just issued a 45-page report on the use of white phosphorus and how it can injure people if not used correctly. The still unanswered question is how many Palestinian casualties were caused by white phosphorus and how severe were most of these casualties. …In the case of smoke munitions containing white phosphorous, the expected military benefit was that they would protect Israeli forces from attack: a compelling military objective. To review the actual reports see the links below: The Israeli Report of July 29, 2009 The Amnesty International Report July 2009 For more information on Amnesty International’s history of charging Israel with crimes review NGO Monitor. First, the munitions were used only for the purpose for which they were designed, i.e. The accusations against Israel are similar to those lodged against American troops fighting in Fallujah in 2004. The IDF took several precautions and other measures that were appropriate with respect to these particular munitions. Second, the use of felt wedges soaked in white phosphorous tends to further reduce dispersal of the substance and its incendiary side effects as compared to exploding munitions containing white phosphorous. The Israeli report also contradicts Amnesty International’s assertion that “Israeli forces continued to employ the same tactics for the entire duration of the 22 day offensive.” Israel stated that it changed the protocol for using the weapon after a Jan. 15 incident: … after reports of an incident on 15 January 2009 during combat in Tel al-Hawa in which white phosphorous smoke projectiles set fire to a UNRWA warehouse, an IDF directive was issued, effective through the end of the Gaza Operation, establishing a safety buffer of several hundred metres from sensitive sites when using smoke projectiles. Video. Such attacks were indiscriminate and as such unlawful under international law. The IRC web site published a statement on Jan. 17, 2009 in which it states that it has not determined whether Israel’s use of white phosphorus was legal or not. Rain of Fire Israel's Unlawful Use of White Phosphorus in Gaza I. A look at the criticism and legal status of white phosphorus use in warfare. White phosphorus causes very painful and often lethal chemical burns to those hit by it, and until recently Israel maintained that it only uses such bombs to … Israel claims that it used white phosphorus strictly according to accepted practices and took measures to minimize civilians casualties. necessarily constitute a violation. Israel acknowledges that civilians may have been harmed by the munition although it questions the reliability of such reports, stating that “There appears to be insufficient evidence to conclude that white phosphorous caused extensive injuries to civilians in the course of the Gaza Operation.” While acknowledging that some civilian structures may have caught fire as a result of the shells, it notes that out of thousands of these projectiles fired, each containing 116 wedges, the damage was not excessive. 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